Bektashi Order

Turkish Sufi mystic order in Shia Islam

Order of Bektashi dervishes
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Mirrored Islamic calligraphy 22 representing the Bektashi Order of dervishes
TypeDervish Order
Southeastern Europe (Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Greece), Turkey, Belgium, United States, other Albanian diaspora
Baba Mondi
Key people
WebsiteOfficial website
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The Bektashi Order[a] or Bektashism is an Islamic Sufi mystic movement originating in the 13th-century. It is named after the Anatolian saint Haji Bektash Wali (d. 1271). The community is currently led by Baba Mondi, the eighth Bektashi Dedebaba and headquartered in Tirana, Albania.[6]

Bektashism began as a Shia Islamic Sufi Order in Anatolia, during the Ottoman Empire. In 1876, a Salih Nijazi was appointed as the "baba" or leader by prominent Bektashi members. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, Kemal Atatürk banned religious institutions that weren't part of the Directorate of Religious Affairs. After this, the community's headquarters relocated to Albania. The order became involved in Albanian politics, and some of its members, including Ismail Qemali, were major leaders of the Albanian National Awakening.

Bektashis believe in the Twelve Imams, Fourteen Innocents and the modern-day Dedebabas.[7] In addition to the spiritual teachings of Haji Bektash Veli, the Bektashi order was later significantly influenced during its formative period by the Hurufis (in the early 15th century), the Qalandariyya stream of Sufism, and to varying degrees the Shia beliefs circulating in Anatolia during the 14th to 16th centuries. The mystical practices and rituals of the Bektashi order were systematized and structured by Balım Sultan in the 16th century.

According to a 2005 estimate made by Reshat Bardhi, there are over seven million Bektashis worldwide.[8] Albania is the country with the most Bektashis, where they make up 20% of the Muslim population,[9][dubious – discuss] and 2.5% of the country's population.[10] Bektashis are mainly found throughout Anatolia and the Balkans and among Ottoman-era Greek Muslims communities.


Bektashi Islam is named after Haji Bektash Veli.[11][9] Collectively, adherents of Bektashi Islam, are called Bektashi Muslims or simply Bektashis.[1][12][13]


Origins and establishment

The Bektashiyya originated in Anatolia as the followers of the 13th-century scholar Bektash (d. 1271).[14] The doctrines and rituals of the Bektashiyya were codified by the mystic Balim Sultan (d. 1517–1519), who is considered the pīr al-thānī ('the Second Elder') by Bektashis.[14]

It was originally founded as a Sufi movement.[15][16] The branch became widespread in the Ottoman Empire, their lodges scattered throughout Anatolia as well as in the Balkans. It became the official order of the Janissary corps, the elite infantry corp of the Ottoman Army.[17] Therefore, they also became mainly associated with Anatolian and Balkan Muslims of Eastern Orthodox convert origin, mainly Albanians and northern Greeks (although most leading Bektashi babas were of southern Albanian origin).[18] In 1826, the Bektashi order was banned throughout the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mahmud II for having close ties with the Janissary corps.[17] Many Bektashi dervishes were exiled, and some were executed.[17] Their tekkes were destroyed and their revenues were confiscated.[17] This decision was supported by the Sunni religious elite as well as the leaders of other, more orthodox, Sufi orders. Bektashis slowly regained freedom with the coming of the Tanzimat era. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, Kemal Atatürk shut down the lodges in 1925. Consequently, the Bektashi leadership moved to Albania and established their headquarters in the city of Tirana. Among the most famous followers of Bektashi in the 19th century Balkans were Ali Pasha[19][20][21][22][23][24] and Naim Frashëri.


After lodges in Turkey were shut down, the order's headquarters moved to Albania.[25] On 20 March 1930, Sali Njazi was elected as the First Dedebaba of the Bektashi community. Njazi established the Bektashi World Headquarters in Tirana.[25] Its construction was finished in 1941 during the Italian occupation of Albania.[25] Njazi promoted Bektashi Islam by introducing major ceremonies at popular tekkes.[25] After he was murdered, Ali Riza succeeded him as the Dedebaba.[25]

Despite the negative effect of the ban of lodges on Bektashi culture, most Bektashis in Turkey have been generally supportive of secularism to this day, since these reforms have relatively relaxed the religious intolerance that had historically been shown against them by the official Sunni establishment.

In the Balkans the Bektashi order had a considerable impact on the Islamization of many areas, primarily Albania and Bulgaria, as well as parts of Macedonia, particularly among Ottoman-era Greek Muslims from western Greek Macedonia such as the Vallahades. By the 18th century Bektashism began to gain a considerable hold over the population of southern Albania and northwestern Greece (Epirus and western Greek Macedonia). Following the ban on Sufi orders in the Republic of Turkey, the Bektashi community's headquarters was moved from Hacıbektaş in central Anatolia, to Tirana, Albania. In Albania, the Bektashi community declared its separation from the Sunni community and they were perceived ever after as a distinct Islamic sect rather than a branch of Sunni Islam. Bektashism continued to flourish until the Second World War. After the communists took power in 1945, several babas and dervishes were executed and a gradual constriction of Bektashi influence began. Ultimately, in 1967 all tekkes were shut down when Enver Hoxha banned all religious practice. When this ban was rescinded in 1990 the Bektashism reestablished itself, although there were few left with any real knowledge of the spiritual path. Nevertheless, many "tekkes" (lodges) operate today in Albania. The most recent head of the order in Albania was Hajji Reshat Bardhi Dedebaba (1935–2011) and the main tekke has been reopened in Tirana. In June 2011 Baba Edmond Brahimaj was chosen as the head of the Bektashi order by a council of Albanian babas. Today sympathy for the order is generally widespread in Albania where approximately 20% of Muslims identify themselves as having some connection to Bektashism.

There are also important Bektashi communities among the Albanian communities of Macedonia and Kosovo, the most important being the Harabati Baba Tekke in the city of Tetovo, which was until recently under the guidance of Baba Tahir Emini (1941–2006). Following the death of Baba Tahir Emini, the dedelik of Tirana appointed Baba Edmond Brahimaj (Baba Mondi), formerly head of the Turan Tekke of Korçë, to oversee the Harabati baba tekke. A splinter branch of the order has recently sprung up in the town of Kičevo which has ties to the Turkish Bektashi community under Haydar Ercan Dede rather than Tirana. A smaller Bektashi tekke, the Dikmen Baba Tekkesi, is in operation in the Turkish-speaking town of Kanatlarci, Macedonia that also has stronger ties with Turkey's Bektashis. In Kosovo, the relatively small Bektashi community has a tekke in the town of Gjakovë and is under the leadership of Baba Mumin Lama and it recognizes the leadership of Tirana.

In Bulgaria, the türbes of Kıdlemi Baba, Ak Yazılı Baba, Demir Baba and Otman Baba function as heterodox Islamic pilgrimage sites and before 1842 were the centers of Bektashi tekkes.[26]

Bektashis continue to be active in Turkey and their semi-clandestine organizations can be found in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. There are currently two rival claimants to the dedebaba in Turkey: Mustafa Eke and Haydar Ercan.

A large functioning Bektashi tekke was also established in the United States in 1954 by Baba Rexheb. This tekke is found in the Detroit suburb of Taylor and the tomb (türbe) of Baba Rexheb continues to draw pilgrims of all faiths.

Arabati Baba Teḱe controversy

In 2002, a group of armed members of the Islamic Religious Community of Macedonia (ICM), a Sunni group that is the legally recognized organisation which claims to represent all Muslims in North Macedonia, invaded the Shiʻi Bektashi Order's Arabati Baba Teḱe in an attempt to reclaim this tekke as a mosque although the facility has never functioned as such. Subsequently, the Bektashi Order of North Macedonia sued the government for failing to restore the tekke to the Bektashis, pursuant to a law passed in the early 1990s returning properties previously nationalized under the Yugoslav government. The law, however, deals with restitution to private citizens, rather than religious communities.[27]

Diagram showing Bektashi as well as other Sufi orders.

The ICM claim to the tekke is based upon their contention to represent all Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia; and indeed, they are one of two Muslim organizations recognized by the government, both Sunni. The Bektashi community filed for recognition as a separate religious community with the Macedonian government in 1993, but the Macedonian government has refused to recognize them.[27]


Bektashis believe in One God (Allah) and follow all the prophets.[9] Bektashis claim the heritage of Haji Bektash Veli, who was a descended of Ali, Husayn, Zayn and other Imams.[9][28] Therefore, Bektashis follow the teachings of Haji Bektash, who preached about the Twelve Imams. Bektashis differ from other Muslims by also following the Fourteen Innocents, who either died in infancy or were martyred with Husayn.[29] Abbas ibn Ali is also an important figure in Bektashi Islam, and Bektashi Muslims visit Mount Tomorr to honor him during an annual pilgrimage to the Abbas Ali Türbe on August 20–25.[30]

In addition to the Muslim daily five prayers, Bektashi Muslims have two specific prayers, one at dawn and one at dusk for the welfare of all humanity.[9] Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood (Arabic: وحدة الوجود, romanizedUnity of Being) that was formulated by Ibn Arabi.

Malakat is an important text of Bektashi written by Haji Bektash.[31] Bektashis also follow the Quran and Hadith. Bektashis hold that the Quran has two levels of meaning: an outer (Arabic: ظاهر, romanizedZahir) and an inner (Arabic: باطن, romanizedBatin).[32]

Bektashis follow the modern-day Bektashi Dedebabate, currently headed by Hajji Mondi. Bektashis consider the dedebaba as their leader overseeing the entire branch.

Bektashism is also heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked reverence of Ali, The Twelve Imams, and the ritual commemoration of Ashura marking the Battle of Karbala. The old Persian holiday of Nowruz is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday (see also; Nevruz in Albania).

The Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide—called a baba in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia" (religious law), "Tariqah" (the spiritual path), "Marifa" (true knowledge), "Haqiqah" (truth).

There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarities with other faiths, such as a ritual meal (muhabbet) and yearly confession of sins to a baba (magfirat-i zunub مغفرة الذنوب). Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Quran and the prophetic practice (Sunnah). They have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis generally revere Sufi mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them despite many of being from more mainstream Islamic backgrounds.

Bektashis hold that the Quran has two levels of meaning: an outer (zahir ظاهر) and an inner (batin باطن). They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity (This view can also be found in Ismailism—see Batiniyya).

Poetry and literature

Poetry plays an important role in the transmission of Bektashi spirituality. Several important Ottoman-era poets were Bektashis, and Yunus Emre, the most acclaimed poet of the Turkish language, is generally recognized as a subscriber to the Bektashi order.

Like many Sufis, the Bektashis were quite lax in observing daily Muslim laws, and women as well as men took part in ritual wine drinking and dancing during devotional ceremonies. The Bektashis in the Balkans adapted such Christian practices as the ritual sharing of bread and the confession of sins. Bektashi mystical writings made a rich contribution to Sufi poetry.[33]

A poem from Bektashi poet Balım Sultan (died c. 1517/1519):

İstivayı özler gözüm, (My eye seeks out repose,)
Seb'al-mesânîdir yüzüm, (my face is the 'oft repeated seven (i.e. the Sura Al-Fatiha),)
Ene'l-Hakk'ı söyler sözüm, (My words proclaim "I am the Truth",)
Miracımız dardır bizim, (Our ascension is (by means of) the scaffold,)
Haber aldık muhkemattan, (We have become aware through the "firm letters",)
Geçmeyiz zâttan sıfattan, (We will not abandon essence or attributes,)
Balım nihan söyler Hakk'tan, (Balım speaks arcanely of God)
İrşâdımız sırdır bizim. (Our teaching is a mystery.[34])

Some important early Bektashi writers who wrote in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic are:[35]

  • Yunus Emre
  • Kajgusez Sultan
  • Fuzuliu
  • Nesimiu
  • Pir Sulltan Abdalli
  • Shah Ismail (Hatai)
  • Sejjid Ali Sulltan
  • Viran Father

Some important Albanian Bektashi writers are:[36]

  • Nasibi Tahir Babai (d. 1835)
  • Father Abdullah Melçani (d. 1852)
  • Father Hajji Haqi Ali
  • Father Selim Ruhi
  • Father Adem Vexhhi (b. 1841 in Gjakova)
  • Father Meleq Shëmbërdhenji
  • Father Ahmet Turani
  • Father Ali Tomorri
  • Father Sahu i Matohasanajt
  • Father Hamzai (1882-1952)

Community hierarchy

Like most other Sufi orders, Bektashism is initiatic, and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality. The Turkish names are given below, followed by their Arabic and Albanian equivalents.[37]

  1. First-level members are called aşıks عاشق (Albanian: ashik). They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are nevertheless drawn to it.
  2. Following initiation (called nasip), one becomes a mühip محب (Albanian: muhib).
  3. After some time as a mühip, one can take further vows and become a dervish.
  4. The next level above dervish is that of baba. The baba (lit. father) (Albanian: atë) is considered to be the head of a tekke and qualified to give spiritual guidance (irshad إرشاد).
  5. Above the baba (Albanian: gjysh) is the rank of halife-baba (or dede, grandfather).
  6. The dedebaba (Albanian: kryegjysh) is traditionally considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi (The Saint's Home) which was located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash Wali in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş (aka Solucakarahüyük), known as the Hajibektash complex.

Traditionally there were twelve of these hierarchical rankings, the most senior being the dedebaba (great-grandfather).


In Albania, the World Headquarters of the Bektashi (Albanian: Kryegjyshata) divides the country into 6 different administrative districts (similar to Christian parishes and patriarchates), each of which is called a gjyshata.[37]

During the 1930s, the six gjyshata of Albania set up by Sali Njazi were:[37]

National headquarters in other countries are located in:[38]

There is also a Bektashi office in Brussels, Belgium.[39]

World Bektashi Congress

The World Bektashi Congress, also called the National Congress of the Bektashi, a conference during which members of the Bektashi Community make important decisions, has been held in Albania several times. Since 1945, it has been held exclusively in Tirana. The longest gap between two congresses lasted from 1950 to 1993, when congresses could not be held during Communist rule in Albania. A list of congresses is given below.[37][40]

No. Congress Date Location Notes
1 First National Congress of the Bektashi 14–17 January 1921 tekke of Prishta in the Skrapar region The name Komuniteti Bektashian (Bektashi community) was adopted.
2 Second National Congress of the Bektashi 8–9 July 1924 Gjirokastra
3 Third National Congress of the Bektashi 23 September 1929 tekke of Turan near Korça The Bektashi declared themselves to be a religious community autonomous from other Islamic communities.
4 Fourth National Congress of the Bektashi 5 May 1945 Tirana Xhafer Sadiku Dede was made kryegjysh (or dedebaba), and the influential Baba Faja Martaneshi, a communist collaborator, was made secretary general.
5 Fifth National Congress of the Bektashi 16 April 1950 Tirana
6 Sixth National Congress of the Bektashi 19–20 July 1993 Tirana
7 Seventh National Congress of the Bektashi 23–24 September 2000 Tirana
8 Eighth National Congress of the Bektashi 21 September 2005 Tirana
9 Ninth National Congress of the Bektashi 6 July 2009 Tirana

List of Dedebabas

This section lists the Dedebabas (Supreme Leaders) of the Bektashi Order.

In Turkey (before 1930)

List of Bektashi Dedebabas (mostly based in Hacıbektaş, Anatolia), prior to the 1925 exodus of the Bektashi Order from Turkey to Albania:[41]

  • Haxhi Bektash Veliu (1282-1341)
  • Hidër Llalla (1341-1361)
  • Resul Balli (1361-1441)
  • Jusuf Balli (1400s)
  • Myrsel Balli (1400s)
  • Ballëm Sulltan (1509-1516)
  • Sersem Ali Dede Baba (1551-1569)
  • Eihaxh Ahmed Dede Baba (1569-1569)
  • Ak Abdulla Dede Baba (1569-1596)
  • Kara Halil Dede Baba (1596-1628)
  • Eihaxh Vahdeti Dede (1628-1649)
  • Eihaxh Sejjid Mustafa Dede Baba (1649-1675)
  • Ibrahim Agjah Dede Baba (1675-1689)
  • Halil Ibrahim Dede Baba (1689-1714)
  • Haxhi Hasan Dede Baba (1714-1736)
  • Hanzade Mehmed Kylhan Dede (1736-1759)
  • Sejjid Kara Ali Dede Baba (1759-1783)
  • Sejjid Dede Baba (1783-1790)
  • Haxhi Mehmed Nuri Dede Baba (1790-1799)
  • Haxhi Halil Haki Dede Baba (1799-1813)
  • Mehmed Nebi Dede Baba (1813-1834)
  • Haxhi Ibrahim Dede Baba (1834-1835)
  • Sejjid Haxhi Mahmud Dede Baba (1835-1846)
  • Saatxhi Dede Baba (1846-1848)
  • Sejjid Hasan Dede Baba (1848-1849)
  • Elhaxh Ali Turabi Dede Baba (1849-1868)
  • Haxhi Hasan Dede Baba (1868-1874)
  • Perishan Hafizali Dede Baba (1874-1879)
  • Mehmed Ali Hilmi Dede Baba (1879-1907)
  • Haxhi Mehmed Ali Dede Baba (1907-1910)
  • Haxhi Fejzullah Dede Baba (1910-1913)
  • Sali Njazi Dede Baba (1913-1925)

In Albania (1930–present)

List of Bektashi Dedebabas following the 1925 exodus of the Bektashi Order from Turkey to Albania:

No. Portrait Name Term in office
1 Sali Nijazi Dede (portret).jpg Salih Nijazi
20 March 1930[42] 28 November 1941
11 years, 8 months and 8 days
2 Ali Riza Dede.jpg Ali Riza
6 January 1942 22 February 1944
2 years, 1 month and 16 days
3 Kamber Ali Dede.jpg Kamber Ali
12 April 1944 1945
0 or 1 year
4 Xhafer Sadik Dede.jpg Xhafer Sadik
5 May 1945 2 August 1945
2 months and 28 days
5 Ikonë Bektashiane.svg Abaz Hilmi
6 September 1945 19 March 1947
1 year, 6 months and 13 days
6 Ahmet Myftar Dede.jpg Ahmet Myftar
8 June 1947 1958
9 or 10 years
7 Ikonë Bektashiane.svg Baba Reshat
Baba Reshat (nënshkrim).svg
20 July 1993 2 April 2011
17 years, 8 months and 13 days
8 Baba Mondi 2017.JPG Baba Mondi
Baba Mondi (nënshkrim).svg
11 June 2011 Incumbent
11 years, 3 months and 9 days

Religious figures

Some notable Bektashi religious and legendary figures are:[37]
  • Abaz Hilmi, Dede Baba, of the Tekke of Frashër (1887–1947)
  • Abbas ibn Ali
  • Abdullah Baba of Melçan (1786–1857 (–1853?))
  • Abedin Baba of Leskovik
  • Adem Baba of Prizren (d. 1894)
  • Adem Vexh-hi Baba of Gjakova (1841–1927)
  • Ahmet Baba of Prishta (d. 1902)
  • Ahmet Baba of Turan (1854–1928)
  • Ahmet Karadja
  • Ahmet Myftari, Dede Baba (1916–1980)
  • Ahmet Sirri Baba of Mokattam (1895–1963)
  • Ali Baba of Berat
  • Ali Baba of Tomorr (1900–1948)
  • Ali Baba Horasani of Fushë Kruja (d. 1562)
  • Ali Haqi Baba of Gjirokastra (1827–1907)
  • Ali Riza of Elbasan, Dede Baba (1876–1944)
  • Alush Baba of Frashër (c. 1816–1896)
  • Arshi Baba of Durballi Sultan (1906–2015)
  • Arshi Baba of Gjirokastra (d. 1621)
  • Asim Baba of Gjirokastra (d. 1796)
  • Balim Sultan of Dimetoka (1457–1517)
  • Dylgjer Hysejni of Elbasan (b. 1959)
  • Edmond Brahimaj, Dede Baba (1910–1947)
  • Faja Martaneshi Baba
  • Fetah Baba of Backa
  • Hajdar Hatemi Baba of Gjonëm (early 19th century)
  • Hajdër Baba of Kardhiq (d. 1904)
  • Haji Bektash Veli (1248–1337) (Albanian: Haxhi Bektashi Veli; Turkish: Hacı Bektaş Veli)
  • Hasan Dede of Përmet
  • Haxhi Baba Horasani of Përmet (d. 1620)
  • Haxhi Baba of Fushë Kruja
  • Hidër Baba of Makedonski Brod
  • Hysen Baba of Melçan (d. 1914)
  • Hysen Kukeli Baba of Fushë Kruja (1822–1893)
  • Ibrahim Baba of Qesaraka (d. 1930)
  • Ibrahim Xhefai Baba of Elbasan (d. 1829)
  • Iljaz Vërzhezha, Dervish (d. 1923)
  • Kamber Ali, Dede Baba (1869–1950)
  • Kasem Baba of Kastoria (late 15th century)
  • Kusum Baba of Vlora
  • Lutfi Baba of Mokattam (1849–1942)
  • Mehmet Baba of Fushë Kruja (1882–1934)
  • Meleq Shëmbërdhenji Baba (1842–1918)
  • Muharrem Baba of Frashër (early 19th century)
  • Muharrem Mahzuni Baba of Durballi Sultan (d. 1867)
  • Myrteza Baba of Fushë Kruja (1912–1947)
  • Qazim Baba of Elbasan (1891–1962)
  • Qazim Baba of Gjakova [sq] (1895–1981)
  • Qamil Baba of Gllava (d. 1946)
  • Reshat Bardhi, Dede Baba (1935–2011)
  • Rexheb Baba of Gjirokastra (1901–1995)
  • Salih Baba of Matohasanaj (19th to 20th centuries)
  • Salih Nijazi, Dede Baba (1876–1941)
  • Sari Saltik
  • Seit Baba of Durballi Sultan (d. 1973)
  • Selim Kaliçani Baba of Martanesh (1922–2001)
  • Selim Ruhi Baba of Gjirokastra (1869–1944)
  • Selman Xhemali Baba of Elbasan (d. 1949)
  • Sersem Ali Baba of Tetova [sq] (d. 1569)
  • Shemimi Baba of Fushë Kruja (1748–1803)
  • Sulejman Baba of Gjirokastra (d. 1934)
  • Tahir Nasibi Baba of Frashër (d. 1835)
  • Tahir Baba of Prishta (19th century)
  • Xhafer Sadiku, Dede Baba (1874–1945)


See also



  1. ^ Arabic: بكتاشى; Albanian: Tarikati Bektashi; Turkish: Bektaşi


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  2. ^ "Encyclopedia Iranica, "ḤĀJĪ BEKTĀŠ"". Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b "ʿALĪ AL-AʿLĀ (d. 822/1419), also known as Amīr Sayyed ʿAlī, principal successor of Fażlallāh Astarābādī, founder of the Ḥorūfī sect". Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  4. ^ "Encyclopedia Iranica, "ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH" (d. 796/1394), founder of the Ḥorūfī religion, H. Algar". Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Encyclopedia Iranica, "HORUFISM" by H. Algar". Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  6. ^ Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch., eds. (1960). "Bektāshiyya". The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 1162. OCLC 495469456.
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  8. ^ Norman H. Gershman (2008). Besa: Muslims who Saved Jews in World War II (illustrated ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780815609346.
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  10. ^ "Albania Infographic Profile July 2018.pdf" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2018.
  11. ^ "Bektāšīya". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 15 December 1989. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  12. ^ "The Bektashi Shi'as of Michigan: Pluralism and Orthodoxy within Twelver Shi'ism". Retrieved 31 August 2021.
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  14. ^ a b Algar 1989.
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  18. ^ Nicolle, David; pg 29
  19. ^ Miranda Vickers (1999), The Albanians: A Modern History, London: I.B. Tauris, p. 22, ISBN 9781441645005, archived from the original on 19 May 2016, retrieved 20 October 2015, Around that time, Ali was converted to Bektashism by Baba Shemin of Kruja...
  20. ^ H.T.Norris (2006), Popular Sufism in Eastern Europe: Sufi Brotherhoods and the Dialogue with Christianity and 'Heterodoxy' (Routledge Sufi), Routledge Sufi series, Routledge, p. 79, ISBN 9780203961223, OCLC 85481562, archived from the original on 29 June 2016, retrieved 20 October 2015, ...and the tomb of Ali himself. Its headstone was capped by the crown (taj) of the Bektashi order.
  21. ^ Robert Elsie (2004), Historical Dictionary of Albania, European historical dictionaries, Scarecrow Press, p. 40, ISBN 9780810848726, OCLC 52347600, archived from the original on 28 April 2016, retrieved 20 October 2015, Most of the Southern Albania and Epirus converted to Bektashism, initially under the influence of Ali Pasha Tepelena, "the Lion of Janina", who was himself a follower of the order.
  22. ^ Vassilis Nitsiakos (2010), On the Border: Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries along the Albanian-Greek Frontier (Balkan Border Crossings- Contributions to Balkan Ethnography), Balkan border crossings, Berlin: Lit, p. 216, ISBN 9783643107930, OCLC 705271971, archived from the original on 5 May 2016, retrieved 20 October 2015, Bektashism was widespread during the reign of Ali Pasha, a Bektashi himself,...
  23. ^ Gerlachlus Duijzings (2010), Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 82, ISBN 9780231120982, OCLC 43513230, archived from the original on 29 April 2016, retrieved 20 October 2015, The most illustrious among them was Ali Pasha (1740–1822), who exploited the organisation and religious doctrine...
  24. ^ Stavro Skendi (1980), Balkan Cultural Studies, East European monographs, Boulder, p. 161, ISBN 9780914710660, OCLC 7058414, archived from the original on 2 May 2016, retrieved 12 November 2015, The great expandion of Bektashism in southern Albania took place during the time of Ali Pasha Tepelena, who is believed to have been a Bektashi himself
  25. ^ a b c d e Elsie, Robert (2019). The Albanian Bektashi: history and culture of a Dervish order in the Balkans. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78831-569-2. OCLC 1108619669.
  26. ^ Lewis, Stephen (2001). "The Ottoman Architectural Patrimony in Bulgaria". EJOS. Utrecht. 30 (IV). ISSN 0928-6802.
  27. ^ a b "Muslims of Macedonia" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  28. ^ "The Bektashi Order of Dervishes". Archived from the original on 18 August 2011.
  29. ^ Moosa, Matti (1 February 1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2411-0.
  30. ^ Elsie 2001, "Tomor, Mount", pp. 252–254.
  31. ^ Borges, Jason (19 November 2019). "Haji Bektash Veli". Cappadocia History. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  32. ^ Radtke, B. "Bāṭen". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  33. ^ "Bektashiyyah | Islamic sect". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  34. ^ Algar, Hamid. The Hurufi Influence on Bektashism: Bektachiyya, Estudés sur l'ordre mystique des Bektachis et les groupes relevant de Hadji Bektach. Istanbul: Les Éditions Isis. pp. 39–53.
  35. ^ Bektashi literature in the world. Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  36. ^ Bektashi literature in Albania. Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  37. ^ a b c d e Elsie, Robert (2019). The Albanian Bektashi: history and culture of a Dervish order in the Balkans. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78831-569-2. OCLC 1108619669.
  38. ^ Bektashi Quarters (Gjyshatat). Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  39. ^ Office in Brussels. Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  40. ^ Kongreset Bektashiane. World Headquarters of the Bektashi. Accessed 19 September 2021. (in Albanian)
  41. ^ Kryegjyshët Botëror. Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  42. ^ Çuni, Nuri. "Kryegjyshata Botrore Bektashiane/ Sot, 90-vjetori i ardhjes në Shqipëri të Kryegjyshit Botror të Bektashinjve, Sali Niazi Dedei. Kryegjyshi Botror, Haxhi Dede Edmond Brahimaj: Sot në Korçë zhvillohet aktiviteti për "Nderin e Kombit". Ja historia e plot e klerikut atdhetar". Gazeta Telegraf (in Albanian).


  • Algar, Hamid (1989). "BEKTĀŠĪYA". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. IV. pp. 118–122.
  • Doja, Albert. 2006. "A political history of Bektashism from Ottoman Anatolia to Contemporary Turkey." Journal of Church and State 48 (2): 421–450. doi=10.1093/jcs/48.2.423.
  • Doja, Albert. 2006. "A political history of Bektashism in Albania." Politics, Religion & Ideology 7 (1): 83–107. doi=10.1080/14690760500477919.
  • Elsie, Robert (2001). A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology and Folk Culture. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-1-85065-570-1.
  • Nicolle, David; UK (1995). The Janissaries (5th). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-413-X.
  • Muhammed Seyfeddin Ibn Zulfikari Derviş Ali; Bektaşi İkrar Ayini, Kalan Publishing, Translated from Ottoman Turkish by Mahir Ünsal Eriş, Ankara, 2007 Turkish

Further reading

  • Elsie, Robert (2019). The Albanian Bektashi: history and culture of a Dervish order in the Balkans. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78831-569-2. OCLC 1108619669.
  • Yürekli, Zeynep (2012). Architecture and hagiography in the Ottoman Empire : the politics of Bektashi shrines in the classical age. Farnham, Surrey Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4094-1106-2. OCLC 776031990.
  • Frashëri, Naim Bey. Fletore e Bektashinjet. Bucharest: Shtypëshkronjët të Shqipëtarëvet, 1896; Reprint: Salonica: Mbrothësia, 1909. 32 pp.

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