Deobandi

Sunni revivalist movement

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Deobandi is a revivalist movement within Sunni Islam, adhering to the Hanafi school of law,[1][2] formed in the late 19th century around the Darul Uloom Madrassa in Deoband, India, from which the name derives,[3][4][5] by Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and several others,[4] after the Indian Rebellion of 1857–58.[3][5][6][7] The movement pioneered education in religious sciences through the Dars-i-Nizami associated with the Lucknow-based ulema of Firangi Mahal with the goal of preserving Islamic teachings under colonial rule.[8] The Deobandi movement's political wing, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, was founded in 1919 and played a major role in the Indian independence movement through its propagation of the doctrine of composite nationalism.[9][10][11]

Theologically, the Deobandis uphold the doctrine of taqlid (conformity to legal precedent) and adhere to the Hanafi school.[12] Founders of the Deobandi school Nanautavi and Gangohi drew inspiration from the religio-political doctrines of the prominent South Asian Islamic scholar and Sufi reformer Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703–1762 CE / 1114–1175 AH). In its early years, the Deobandi school engaged in interfaith debates with Christian and Hindu scholars in a peaceful manner,[3] and Deobandi philosophers talked about Hindu-Muslim unity, multiculturalism and opposition to the partition of India.[11]

Since 1979, the movement has been influenced by Salafism, particularly in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[3] From the early 1980s to the early 2000s, some Deobandis were heavily funded by Saudi Arabia.[13] The Pakistani government cultivated Deobandi militancy to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan and India in Kashmir. The money and guns supplied later fuelled civil conflict.[14] The movement has spread from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh to the United Kingdom,[15] and has a presence in South Africa.[16] The Pakistani and Afghan branches and the original Indian seminaries have far less contact since the Partition of India, for political reasons related to the India–Pakistan border.[3] Followers of the Deobandi movement are extremely diverse; some advocate for non-violence and others are militant.[17]

Foundation and expansion

British colonialism in India[3] was seen by a group of Indian scholars—consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fazlur Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi—to be corrupting Islam.[18] The group founded an Islamic seminary (madrassa) known as Darul Uloom Deoband,[3][4][19] where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Towards the time of the Indian independence movement and afterward in post-colonial India, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British rule.[11]

In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the partition of India.[11] Deobandi scholar Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani helped to spread these ideas through his text Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam.[11] A group later dissented from this position and joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League, including Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Zafar Ahmad Usmani and Muhammad Shafi Deobandi, who formed the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945.[20]

Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat,[21][22] the Deobandi movement began to spread.[23][24] Graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband in India from countries such as South Africa, China, and Malaysia opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world.[25]

Worldwide

Of the world's 1.8 billion Muslims, Deobandism is followed by roughly 20% of them. These are concentrated mainly in the Indian Subcontinent and in the United Kingdom. Deobandism's large following is due at least partially to its ideological similarities to Salafism and Hanafi Fiqh.

India

The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. Some 60% of India's 172.2 million Muslims identify as Deobandi.[26]

Pakistan

Of Pakistan's estimated 230 million Muslims, some 15-30% consider themselves Deobandi.[27][28] According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement.[13] Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.[13]

Deobandi-affiliated groups such as the TTP, SSP, Let, etc. have a militant character[29] and have attacked and destroyed Sufi sites holy to Sunni Muslims of the Barelvi movement, such as Data Darbar in Lahore, Abdullah Shah Ghazi's tomb in Karachi, Khal Magasi in Balochistan, and Rahman Baba's tomb in Peshawar.[29]

Bangladesh

As with the rest of the Indian subcontinent, the majority of Muslims in Bangladesh are traditional Sunni, who mainly follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence (madh'hab) and consequently the Maturidi school of theology.[30][31] The majority of them are Deobandi along with Tablighi (51%)[citation needed] Or 80 Million Muslims and Barelvi or Sufi (26%); the Deobandi, in the form of Qawmi institutions, own the vast majority of private Islamic seminaries and produce the majority of the ulema in Bangladesh. Among Sunnis who are not traditional Hanafi, the Salafi-influenced Ahle Hadith and the Jamaat e Islami (19%) have a substantial following.

Afghanistan

Deobandi Islam is the most popular form of pedagogy in the Pashtun belt on both sides of the Durand Line that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan. Moreover, prominent Afghan and Pakistani Taliban leaders have studied in Deobandi seminaries.[32]

United Kingdom

In the 1970s, Deobandis opened the first British-based Muslim religious seminaries (Darul-Ulooms), educating Imams and religious scholars.[33] Deobandis "have been quietly meeting the religious and spiritual needs of a significant proportion of British Muslims, and are perhaps the most influential British Muslim group."[33] In 2015 Ofsted highlighted the Deobandi seminary in Holcombe as a good example of a school "promoting British values, preventing radicalisation and protecting children".[34] The journalist, Andrew Norfolk, did not agree with this assessment.[35]

According to a 2007 report by Andrew Norfolk, published in The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to "shed blood" for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which The Times said had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times, almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries.[36] An opinion column in The Guardian described this report as "a toxic mixture of fact, exaggeration and outright nonsense."[37]

In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain's mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.[38]

Most Muslim prison chaplaincies in Britain are Deobandi, and in 2016 Michael Spurr (chief executive of the National Offender Management Service) wrote to Britain's prison governors bringing to their attention that Ofsted had said that "the UK’s most influential Deobandi seminary promotes 'fundamental British values such as democracy, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those of different faiths'."[35]

Beliefs

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The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition that grew out of the Islamic scholastic traditions of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762). Dehlawi was a contemporary of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703 - 1792), a great scholer, and they studied in Medina under some of the same teachers.[39]

Theology

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In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology.[40][41][42] Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi scholar Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi.[43]

Fiqh (Islamic law)

Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Deobandi must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism.[44] They themselves claims the followers of the Hanafi school.[40][45] Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.[46]

With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i-Hadith, also known as the Ghair Muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith.[47] They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling.[48] Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.[49]

Hadith

In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed.[50]

In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence. Their views were widely shared by a broad range of Islamic reform movements of the colonial period.[51]

Sufism and Wahhabism

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Deobandis oppose traditional Sufi practices such as celebrating the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and seeking help from him, the celebration of Urs, pilgrimage to the shrines of Sufi saints, practice of Sema, and loud dhikr.[52][53][54][55] Some Deobandi leaders incorporate elements of Sufism into their practices. Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic holy scriptures (Quran, hadith and law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order.[19]

Arshad Madani, principal of Darul Uloom Deoband and an influential Deobandi scholar and leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, on the other hand rejected Sufism and said, "Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? This is a thing for those who don't know Quran and Hadith." He also said, "Sufism is nothing."[56]

Founders of the Deobandi school, Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, were inspired by the religio-political doctrine of Shah Waliullah and also by Wahhabi ideology,[4] amongst other sources of inspiration. Gangohi studied under the Sufi shaykh Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, although he differed with his views in many ways.[57] Gangohi's Fatawa-yi Rashidiyya opposed traditional Sufi practices such as loud dhikr, visiting the tombs of Sufi saints, celebrating Urs, visualizing or contemplating on a Sufi master (tasawwur-e-shaykh), reciting the Fatihah on special occasions, and engaging in Sema.[54]

Darul Uloom Deoband's conservatism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with Wahhabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there.[25] Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi, noted hadith scholar and Sufi Shaykh of Deobandis, says that,

The reality of "tasawwuf" is merely correction of intention. It begins with "actions are only according to intentions" and ends with "that you worship Him (Allah) as if you see Him."[58]

Positions

According to Brannon D. Ingram, Deobandis differ from Barelvis on three theological positions.[59] Gangohi stated that God has the ability to lie.[60] This doctrine is called Imkan-i Kizb.[59][60] According to this doctrine, because God is omnipotent, God is capable of lying.[59] Gangohi also supported the doctrine that God has the ability to make additional prophets after Muhammad (Imkan-i Nazir) and other prophets equal to Muhammad.[59][60] Gangohi clarifies that although God has the ability to make prophets on "par" with Muhammad, he "would never do so."[59] This goes against traditional Sufi beliefs which see Prophet Muhammad as the apex of creation. Gangohi opposed the Sufi doctrine that Muhammad has knowledge of the unseen (ilm e ghaib).[60][59] This belief of the Deobandis conflicts with traditional Sufi views of Muhammad having unparalled and unequal knowledge that encompasses the unseen realm.[60][59] Gangohi also issued multiple fatwas against the Mawlid and stated it is an innovation (bidah),[61] opposed the practice of standing up in honour of Muhammad during Mawlid.[61]

Organizations

Jamiat Ulema-I-Hind

Jamiat Ulema-I-Hind is one of the leading Deobandi organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Kifayatullah Dehlawi who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years.[62] The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.[63]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement.[64] The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan.[65] The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded 29 December 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founders of the party.[66] The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party.[67][page needed] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and against establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as criticism of the Ahmadiyya movement.[68] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.

Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat, a non-political Deobandi missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement.[69] Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practising Deobandi Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 200 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, it has now established an independent identity though it still maintains close ties with Deobandi ulema in many countries with large South Asian Muslim populations such as the UK.[70]

Associated political organizations

Associated militant organizations

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (Army of Jhangvi) was a Deobandi militant organization. Formed in 1996, it operated in Pakistan as an offshoot of Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors.[71] The group, now practically defunct since the unsuccessful Operation Zarb-e-Azab, is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States,[72] It was involved in attacks on civilians and protectors of them.[73][74] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi.[75] The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.[76]

Taliban

The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban,[77] is an Islamic fundamentalist political and militant movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law.[78] While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law,[79] the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan,[25] and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism.[80] Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation.[81] The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women.[82][83]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.[84][85] Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.[84][85][86]

The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun.[86][87]

Sipah-e-Sahaba

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.[88][89] The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997.[88][89] In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad."[90] A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."[91]

Notable institutions

Right after Darul Uloom Deoband, the main center of Deobandism throughout the world, Mazahir Uloom, Saharanpur is the second known Deobandi madrassa in India, which produced the scholars like Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi. Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi's established Madrasa Shahi, Moradabad, the alma of scholars like Mufti Mahmud and Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi has its position. Darul Uloom Karachi, founded by Mufti Shafi Usmani, Jamia Binoria and Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia in Pakistani are top Deobandi institutions there. Darul Uloom Bury, Holcombe, established by Yusuf Motala during 1970s is the first Deobandi madrassa of the West[92] In South Africa, Darul Ulum Newcastle, was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema[93] and Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya in Lenasia,[94][95][96] Madrasah In'aamiyyah, Camperdown is known for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.[97] Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam is the first established Deobandi madrassa in Bangladesh, which produced the scholars like Shah Ahmad Shafi, Junaid Babunagari. Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, Ontario, Canada, Darul Uloom Al-Madania in Buffalo, New York, Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan in Iran and Darul Uloom Raheemiyyah are some top Deobandi institutions.

Scholars

Contemporary Deobandis

Legacy

See also

References

  1. ^ Commins, David (2016) [2006], The Mission and the Kingdom: Wahhabi Power behind the Saudi throne, I.B.Tauris, p. 144, ISBN 9781838609528, That tendency [of reviving the community of believers] emerged in a town north of Delhi called Deoband and it is therefore known as the Deobandi movement. While they shared the Wahhabis' dedication to ritual correctness, their scrupulous adherence to the Hanafi legal school clearly set them apart from the Arabian Hanbalis.
  2. ^ Ingram, Brannon D. (2018). Revival from Below: The Deoband Movement and Global Islam. Oakland: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520298002. LCCN 2018014045.
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  4. ^ a b c d Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas, eds. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 139. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-94966-3. ISBN 978-1-349-94965-6. LCCN 2016951736. Some prominent founders of the Darul Uloom Deoband, such as Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, drew further inspiration from the religiopoliticial concept of Shah Waliullah and they set up an Islamic seminary at Deoband in UP on 30 May 1866
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  8. ^ L. Esposito, John (1995). The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern Islamic world Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 0-19-509612-6. DEOBANDIS... It was a pioneer effort to transmit the religious sciences, specifically the dars-i-nizami identified with the Lucknow-based 'ulama' of Farangi Mahal.. The goal of the school was to preserve the teachings of the faith in a period of non-Muslim rule and considerable social change...
  9. ^ Barbhuiya, Atiqur Rahman (2020). Indigenous People of Barak Valley. Notion Press. ISBN 978-1-64678-800-2. Muslim politics in India opened a new chapter after the formation of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1919 A.D. under the initiative of Ulema of Deoband. It was founded by the dedicated freedom figher Sheikh-Ul-Hindi Maulana Mahmudul Hasan of Darul-Uloom, Deoband. Jamiat played a very active role in India's freedom struggle.
  10. ^ McDermott, Rachel Fell; Gordon, Leonard A.; Embree, Ainslie T.; Pritchett, Frances W.; Dalton, Dennis, eds. (2014). "To Independence and Partition". Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Introduction to Asian Civilizations. Vol. 2 (3rd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-231-13830-7. JSTOR 10.7312/mcde13830.15.
  11. ^ a b c d e Ali, Asghar (9 April 2011). "Islamic identity in secular India". The Milli Gazette. The Ulama of Deoband opposed partition and stood by united nationalism. Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, then chief of Jami’at-ul-Ulama-i-Hind, wrote a tract Muttahida Qaumiyyat aur Islam i.e., the Composite Nationalism and Islam justifying composite nationalism in the light of Qur’an and hadith and opposing Muslim League’s separate nationalism. While the educated elite were aspiring for power and hence wanted their exclusive domain; the Ulama’s priority was an independent India where they could practice Islam without fear or hindrance.
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  20. ^ A History of Pakistan and Its Origins, Christophe Jaffrelot, p. 224
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  24. ^ Youssef Aboul-Enein Militant Islamist Ideology: Understanding the Global Threat Naval Institute Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1612510156 p. 223.
  25. ^ a b c Abbas, Tahir (2011). "Islamic political radicalism: origins and destinations". Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience. London: Routledge. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-415-57224-8.
  26. ^ US Mission in India (2 February 2010), Indian Islam: Deobandi-Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam in India, Wikileaks
    This says that "Over 85 percent of Indian Muslims are Sunni" and that "Deobandis... make up approximately 60 percent of India's Sunni population". This is about 60%.
  27. ^ Pike, John (5 July 2011). "Barelvi Islam". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2003. Retrieved 25 September 2020. By one estimate, in Pakistan, the Shias are 18%, Ismailis 2%, Ahmediyas 2%, Barelvis 50%, Deobandis 20%, Ahle Hadith 4%, and other minorities 4%. [...] By another estimate some 15% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims would consider themselves Deobandi, and some 60% are in the Barelvi tradition based mostly in the province of Punjab. But some 64% of the total seminaries are run by Deobandis, 25% by the Barelvis, 6% by the Ahle Hadith and 3% by various Shiite organisations.
  28. ^ Bedi, Rohan (April 2006), Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions? (PDF), Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, p. 3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013.
    This estimates that 15% of Pakistani Muslims are Deobandi and 20% Shia, which equates to about 19% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims being Deobandi.
  29. ^ a b Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas, eds. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 371. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-94966-3. ISBN 978-1-349-94965-6. LCCN 2016951736.
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  48. ^ Khan, Fareeha (2008). Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce (Thesis). University of Michigan. p. 59. Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling.
  49. ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them
  50. ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, "reviewing") all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa
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  73. ^ Ahmad, Tufail (21 March 2012). "Using Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Other Internet Tools, Pakistani Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Incites Violence against Shi'ite Muslims and Engenders Antisemitism". The Middle East Media Research Insititue, memri.org. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  74. ^ "Pakistani Shi'ites call off protests after Quetta bombing arrests". Reuters. 19 February 2013.
  75. ^ "Pakistan Shias killed in Gilgit sectarian attack". BBC News. 16 August 2012. A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi.
  76. ^ "Iran condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". Tehran Times. 17 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014.
  77. ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 20 December 2000.
  78. ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country
  79. ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3.
  80. ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8.
  81. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali
  82. ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (18 November 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times.
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  85. ^ a b Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan". CTC Sentinel. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center. 1 (2): 1–4.
  86. ^ a b Carlotta Gall; Ismail Khan; Pir Zubair Shah; Taimoor Shah (26 March 2009). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". The New York Times.
  87. ^ Shane, Scott (22 October 2009). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". The New York Times.
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  89. ^ a b "Pakistan: The Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), including its activities and status", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 26 July 2005
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  91. ^ "2009: Southern Punjab extremism battle between haves and have-nots". Dawn. Pakistan. 22 May 2011.
  92. ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. In the UK the Dār al-'Ulūm al-'Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the 'Oxbridge' of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-'Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa.
  93. ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.
  94. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide.
  95. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia.
  96. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world.
  97. ^ a b Schleifer, Prof. S. Abdallah; Al-Meheid, Dr Minwer; Al-Rawadieh, Dr AlMahdi; Ahmed, Dr Aftab; Asfour, Zeinab, eds. (2012). 2012 Edition (PDF). Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. The 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan: Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding. p. 110. ISBN 978-9957-428-37-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2018.
  98. ^ David Emmanuel Singh, The Independent Madrasas of India: Dar al-'Ulum, Deoband and Nadvat al-'Ulama, Lucknow (PDF), Oxford Centre for Mission Studies, retrieved 4 September 2020
  99. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.
  100. ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. وكان أكبر كبارها وشيخ شيوخها الشيخ محمود حسن الديوبندي الملقب بشيخ العالم، والمعروف بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريف مسند الوقت ورحلة الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with].
  101. ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9. The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864–1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.
  102. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.
  103. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period.
  104. ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. doi:10.1163/22138617-08401018. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885–1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  105. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.
  106. ^ Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi' (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading 'ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-'Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-'Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi'] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes.
  107. ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics.
  108. ^ al-Mahmud, A.H.; Hasan, Syed Mahmudul (2008). সননাতে নববীর মরত পরতীক: মাওলানা আবদল মতিন চৌধরী শাযখে ফলবাডী রাহ. pp. 78–81.
  109. ^ "Shah Ahmed Shafi, chief of Bangladesh Islamist group Hifazat-e Islam, dies". bdnews24.com.
  110. ^ "Noted Islamic scholar Mufti Abdur Rahman passes away". BD Chronicle. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015.
  111. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan.
  112. ^ আললামা গহরপরী পরিচিতি. jamiagohorpur.com (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  113. ^ Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester
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  115. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.
  116. ^ "Nur Hossain Kasemi passes away at 75". The Daily Star. 14 December 2020.
  117. ^ "Babunagari denounces government's claim of no death in Hefazat's 2013 protest". Dhaka Tribune. 5 November 2018.
  118. ^ "Mahmudul Hasan new chairman of Qawmi Madrasa Education Board". The Daily Star. 3 October 2020.
  119. ^ বাংলাদেশ খেলাফত মজলিসের নতন কমিটি গঠন [Formation of new committee of Bangladesh Khilafah Majlis]. Daily Naya Diganta (in Bengali).
  120. ^ Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad Shameem) (ed.). Introducing Darul-'Uloom Karachi (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014.
  121. ^ "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  122. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement
  123. ^ "Sylhet: Renowned Islamic scholar Allama Nurul Islam Olipuri speaking at the first day of the three daylong Tafsirul Quran Mahfil as Chief Guest in Sylhet organised by Khademul Quran Parishad, Sylhet recently". The New Nation.
  124. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.
  125. ^ Chimp Corps (28 April 2021). "Kyankwanzi: President Museveni, Mufti Menk Discuss 'Unity in Diversity'". ChimpReports. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.

Further reading

  • Yusuf, Aasia (2014). Islam and modernism: a study of Muslim scholars of Indo-Pak subcontinent (doctoral thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. pp. 122–130.
  • Rasheed, Nighat (2007). A Critical Study of the Reformist Trends in the Indian Muslim Society During the Nineteenth Century (phd thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. pp. 267–282. hdl:10603/52379.
  • Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09680-5.
  • Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3
  • The Beliefs of Darul Uloom Deoband Scholars
  • Books on Deoband Scholars

External links

  • Bennett Jones, Owen (June 2016). "The Origins of the Deobandis, Part 1: India" (radio broadcast). BBC News.
  • Bennett Jones, Owen (June 2016). "The Origins of the Deobandis, Part 2: Pakistan" (radio broadcast). BBC News.
  • Bennett Jones, Owen (April 2016). "The Deobandis (in Britain), Part 1" (radio broadcast). BBC News.
  • Bennett Jones, Owen (April 2016). "The Deobandis (in Britain), Part 2" (radio broadcast). BBC News.
  • Deoband.org
  • Darul-ifta Deoband
  • Darul-uloom Deoband
  • The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah by Sajid Abdul-Kayum
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Imami
Isma'ilism
Kaysanites
Shia
Other Mahdiists
Muhakkima
(Arbitration)
Kharijites
Ibadism
Murji'ah
(Hasan ibn
Muḥāmmad
ibn al-
Hanafiyyah)
Karrāmīyya
  • Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-Sijjī
    • ʿĀbidīyya (ʿUthmān al-ʿĀbid)
    • Dhīmmīyya
    • Hakāiqīyya
    • Haisamīyya (Abū ʿAbdallāh Muhammad ibn al-Haisam)
    • Hīdīyya (Hīd ibn Saif)
    • Ishāqīyya (Abū Yaʿqūb Ishāq ibn Mahmashādh)
    • Maʿīyya
    • Muhājirīyya (Ibrāhīm ibn Muhājir)
    • Nūnīyya
    • Razīnīyya
    • Sauwāqīyya
    • Sūramīyya
    • Tarā'ifīyya (Ahmad ibn ʿAbdūs at-Tarā'ifī)
    • Tūnīyya (Abū Bakr ibn ʿAbdallāh)
    • Wāhidīyya
    • Zarībīyya
Other sects
  • Gaylānīyya
    • Gaylān ibn Marwān
  • Yūnusīyya
    • Yūnus ibn Awn an-Namīrī
  • Gassānīyya
    • Gassān al-Kūfī
  • Tūmanīyya
    • Abū Muāz at-Tūmanī
  • Sawbānīyya
    • Abū Sawbān al-Murjī
  • Sālehīyya
    • Sāleh ibn Umar
  • Shamrīyya
    • Abū Shamr
  • Ubaydīyya
    • Ubayd al-Mūktaib
  • Ziyādīyya
    • Muhammad ibn Ziyād al-Kūfī
Other Murjīs
  • Al-Harith ibn Surayj
  • Sa'id ibn Jubayr
  • Hammād ibn Abū Sūlaimān
  • Muhārīb ibn Dithār
  • Sābit Kutna
  • Awn ibn Abdullāh
  • Mūsā ibn Abū Kasīr
  • Umar ibn Zar
  • Salm ibn Sālem
  • Hālaf ibn Ayyūb
  • Ibrāhim ibn Yousūf
  • Nusayr ibn Yahyā
  • Ahmad ibn Hārb
  • Amr ibn Murrah
Mu'shabbiha
Tamsīl
Tasjīm
Qadariyah
(Ma'bad
al-Juhani)
Alevism
Muʿtazila
(Rationalism)
  • Mā’marīyya
  • Bahshamiyya
    • Abū Hāshīm Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'ī
  • Huzaylīyya
    • Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-Abdī al-Bāsrī
      • Abū Ma‘n Sūmāma ibn Ashras an-Nūmayrī al-Bāsrī al-Baghdādī
  • Ikhshīdiyya
  • Nazzāmīyya
    • Ali al-Aswarī
    • Abū Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn Shabīb al-Basrī
    • Hābītīyya
      • Ahmad ibn Hābīt
  • Sumamīyya
    • Sumāma ibn Ashras
  • Kā‘bīyya
    • Abū’l-Kāsīm Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn Māhmūd al-Balhī al-Kā‘bī
Quranism
Independent
Muslim
beliefs
Messianism
Modernism
Taṣawwuf
Other beliefs