RCD Espanyol

Association football club in Spain
Football club
Espanyol
Rcd espanyol logo.svg
Full nameReial Club Deportiu
Espanyol de Barcelona, S.A.D.
Nickname(s)Periquitos (Parakeets) Blanquiazules (White and Blue)
Short nameRCDE
Founded28 October 1900; 121 years ago (1900-10-28)
as Sociedad Española de Football
StadiumRCDE Stadium
Capacity40,000[1]
OwnerRastar Group
PresidentChen Yansheng
Head coachDiego Martinez
LeagueLa Liga
2021–22La Liga, 14th of 20
WebsiteClub website
Home colours
Away colours
Third colours
Current season
Departments of RCD Espanyol
Football pictogram.svg Football pictogram.svg Football pictogram.svg Football pictogram.svg
Football
(Men's)
Football
(Men's B Team)
Football
(Women's)
Football
(Youth Team)
Basketball pictogram.svg Roller hockey pictogram.svg Volleyball pictogram.svg Baseball pictogram.svg
Basketball
(defunct)
Roller hockey
(defunct)
Volleyball
(defunct)
Baseball
(defunct)

Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol de Barcelona (Catalan: [rəˈjal ˈklub dəpuɾˈtiw əspəˈɲɔl də βəɾsəˈlonə]; "Royal Spanish Sports Club of Barcelona"), commonly known as Espanyol, is a professional sports club based in Cornellà de Llobregat, Spain, that competes in La Liga, the top tier of the Spanish football league system.

Founded in 1900 in Barcelona, Espanyol currently play their home games at the RCDE Stadium, which holds up to 40,000 spectators. Domestically, Espanyol has won the Copa del Rey four times, most recently in 2006. In international competitions, the club reached the UEFA Cup final in 1988 and 2007. It has a long-standing rivalry with FC Barcelona.

Name

First shield of Club Español de Fútbol

Initially known as the Sociedad Española de Football on its foundation, the name was changed to Club Español de Fútbol in 1901. In 1906, the club folded due to financial reasons and most of the players joined the X Sporting Club, which came to win the Campionat de Catalunya three times in a row before disappearing in 1908 to merge with the Spanish Jiu-Jitsu Club to be effectively relaunched as the Club Deportivo Español, and in 1910, they adopted their present-day colours. Espanyol is one of several Spanish football clubs granted patronage by the Spanish crown and thus entitled to use Real in their names and the royal crown on their badge. This right was granted to Espanyol in 1912 by Alfonso XIII and the club subsequently became known as the Real Club Deportivo Español.[2]

Following the abdication of the same king in 1931 and the declaration of the Second Spanish Republic, due to prohibition of royal symbols, the club adopted the more Catalan/republican friendly name, Club Esportiu Espanyol. After the Spanish Civil War, the name was reverted.

The club took the Catalan spelling for its name in February 1995. The word "Deportiu" in Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol de Barcelona is a Catalanised form of the original word "Deportivo" (Castilian), despite the correct word being "Esportiu" in the Catalan language. This choice was made in order to retain the initials "RCD" in the club's name.

History

Foundation and club culture

Espanyol was founded on 28 October 1900 by Ángel Rodríguez Ruiz (1879–1959), an engineering student at the University of Barcelona. The club's original home was in the well-off district of Sarrià; Espanyol was the first club in Spain to be formed exclusively by Spanish fans of the game, with the other early clubs having links to Britain or central Europe.

  • CD Espanyol de Barcelona, Catalan champions in 1904

    CD Espanyol de Barcelona, Catalan champions in 1904

  • RCD Español in 1912.

    RCD Español in 1912.

Ricardo Zamora with Español

The club originally played in bright yellow shirts, with the colour of the shorts being left to the individual player. A friend of the club founder owned a textile business and happened to have an abundance of yellow material left over from a job. In 1910, the club changed its name to the Club Deportivo Español and chose blue and white stripes as shirt colours and as the central colours of the club badge. Blue and white were chosen in homage to the colours appearing on the shield of the great Sicilian-Aragonese Admiral Roger de Lluria, who sailed the Mediterranean protecting the interests of the Crown of Aragon in the Middle Ages. The club was successful from the very beginning, winning the first Campionat de Catalunya in 1903 and subsequently playing in the very first Copa del Rey in 1903.

In 1906 Club Español de Football had to suspend its activities due to a lack of players, since most of them were university students who enrolled to study at universities outside Catalonia. X Sporting Club took advantage of this as most of the remaining Español players joined them, which meant a big leap in quality for the club, and as a result, the X won the Catalan championship three times in a row between 1905 and 1908, beating the likes of FC Internacional and FC Barcelona for the title.[3] This historic side had the likes of Pedro Gibert, José Irízar and Santiago Massana. It was not until 1909 that X and Español were restructured again, when several of the former university students returned to Barcelona with the idea of refounding Club Español de Football, which they achieved on 27 December 1908, when X merged with the Spanish Jiu-Jitsu Club.[3]

In the 1910s, they won the Campionat de Catalunya three times, in 1911–12, 1914–15 and 1917–18, winning later largely thanks to their backline led by Ricardo Zamora. They also reached the final of the Copa del Rey twice in 1911 and 1915, but lost to Athletic Bilbao on both occasions.[4]

In 1994, Espanyol created its reserve team, Espanyol B, currently playing in the Segunda División B.

Two UEFA Cup finals (1988–2009)

Javier Clemente was hired in 1986. In his first season, he took the team to a joint-best 3rd place, qualifying for the UEFA Cup. They defeated Borussia Mönchengladbach, A.C. Milan, Inter Milan, TJ Vitkovice and Club Brugge KV to reach the final, losing on penalties to Bayer 04 Leverkusen after a 3–3 aggregate draw.[5] Two relegations followed, but the club remained in La Liga from winning the 1993–94 Segunda División until relegated at the conclusion of the 2019-20 COVID pandemic impacted season.

President from 1989 to 1993, Juli Pardo oversaw the transformation of the club into a Sociedad Anónima Deportiva.[6] In the wake of the accumulated debt, the club were forced to sell the Sarrià Stadium, which was eventually demolished in 1997.[6]

Paco Flores' Espanyol won the 2000 Copa del Rey Final 2–1 against Atlético Madrid at Mestalla, a first cup win since 1940.[7] Six years later, under Miguel Ángel Lotina, the club won again, this time 4–1 against Real Zaragoza in Madrid, with goals by Raúl Tamudo, Luis García (two) and Coro.[8]

With this cup win, Espanyol entered the UEFA Cup. They won all their group games, before dispatching Livorno, Maccabi Haifa, Benfica, and Werder Bremen to reach the final. In the final, held on 16 May at Hampden Park in Glasgow, Espanyol fell to fellow La Liga side Sevilla, losing 3–1 in a shootout following a 2–2 draw.[9] They became the only football team in UEFA Cup history to remain unbeaten in the tournament, yet not take home the trophy. Walter Pandiani, who would leave the club at the end of the season, was the UEFA Cup's top goalscorer that season. On 9 June 2007, Tamudo became Espanyol's highest-ever goalscorer after surpassing the 111 goals scored by Rafael Marañón, and ended the night with 113.

On 31 May 2009, Espanyol played its last match at the Estadio Olímpico de Montjuic, a 3–0 defeat of Málaga. Espanyol had played in the Estadi Olímpic after moving from their previous ground in Sarria. With the move, club talisman Raúl Tamudo had the unique distinction of having played in three different home stadiums with his club: Sarrià, Montjuïc and, beginning in the 2009–10 season, the Cornellà-El Prat.

Recent years (2009–present)

Iván Alonso in action during a La Liga fixture in August 2009

In January 2009, former Espanyol defender Mauricio Pochettino was hired as manager with the club in the relegation zone – his first senior job.[10] He won 2–1 against rivals Barcelona at the Camp Nou in February to help keep the club up; Barcelona, under Pep Guardiola, won the treble that season.[11]

After 12 seasons playing at the Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc, Espanyol moved to the Estadi de Cornellá-El Prat. The new stadium was officially inaugurated on 2 August 2009 with a match between Espanyol and Liverpool; Espanyol won 3–0, with Luis García scoring the first goal at the ground, followed by a Ben Sahar double.[12] Six days later, Espanyol captain Daniel Jarque died from a cardiac arrest aged 26 in the Florence neighbourhood of Coverciano, where the club was at the time after playing several fixtures in Italy.[13] Since then, in the 21st minute – his former shirt number – of every Espanyol match, an ovation is made in his honour for a full minute.

After Pochettino left in 2012, the club maintained themselves in the top flight under a series of other managers. In January 2016, Chinese businessman Chen Yansheng took over the club by acquiring a 54% stake.[14] In the 2018–19 season, Espanyol finished 7th, thus returning to the Europa League for the first time since their final run in 2006–07.[15] However, the club suffered relegation for the first time since 1994 the following season, after a 1–0 loss at Barcelona.[16][17] On 3 August 2020 the club published an official statement urging La Liga to suspend relegation; nevertheless relegation was not avoided.[18] Espanyol won promotion back to La Liga at the first attempt on 8 May 2021 following a 0–0 draw against Zaragoza, with four matches to spare in the 42-game season.

Rivalries

El derbi barceloní

In the first half of the 20th century during the Miguel Primo de Rivera dictatorship (1923–1930), FC Barcelona was seen as a symbol of Catalan identity. This contrasted with RCD Espanyol which cultivated a kind of compliance with the central authority.[19]

In 1918, the municipalities of Catalonia promoted a campaign to ask the Spanish Government for a Statute of Autonomy. FC Barcelona joined that request and the Catalan press recognized FC Barcelona as a major cultural arm of the Catalan independence movement. The city's other team, RCD Espanyol, dissociated itself from the claim due to the former's success on the European stage.[20][21]

Today FC Barcelona is the club that is closer to the political powers in Catalonia. Its last presidents have linked the club with the Catalan independence movement and the holding of a referendum, even though this causes discomfort among some Catalan fans and those in the rest of Spain who feel neglected and think the team is biased against them.[22] Although some of RCD Espanyol's directors have expressed pro-independence stances, the club stays out of politics. It is believed that most of the team's fans are against the independence of Catalonia.[23]

On numerous occasions RCD Espanyol has complained of unfavourable and sometimes directly offensive treatment towards the club in favour of FC Barcelona by some Catalonian public media like TV3.[24][25][26]

Despite these differences in ideology, the derbi (derby) has always been more relevant to Espanyol supporters than those of Barcelona (who hold El Clásico in higher regard instead) due to the difference in objectives.

Though it is the most played local derby in the history of La Liga, it is also the most unbalanced, with Barcelona overwhelmingly dominant. In the league table, Espanyol has only managed to finish above Barça on three occasions in almost 70 years and the only all-Catalan Copa del Rey final was won by Barça in 1957. Espanyol has the consolation of achieving the largest margin win with a 6–0 victory in 1951.

Espanyol achieved a 2–1 win against FC Barcelona during the 2008–09 season, becoming the first team to defeat Barcelona at Camp Nou in their treble-winning season.[27]

Espanyol lost 0–1 to FC Barcelona on 8 July 2020, to be relegated to the Segunda División.[16][17]

Stadium

From 1923 until 1997, Espanyol played their home games in Estadi de Sarrià in the Sarrià-Sant Gervasi district of Barcelona. In 1997, they moved to the Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys on Montjuïc. For the beginning of the 2009–10 season, Espanyol moved into the newly constructed RCDE Stadium (also known as Estadi Cornellà-El Prat) between Cornellà de Llobregat and El Prat de Llobregat.

Competition summary

Achievements

Honours

Men's football

National

Winners (4): 1928–29, 1940, 1999–2000, 2005–06
Runners-up (5): 1911, 1915, 1941, 1947, 1957
Winners (2): 1993–94, 2020–21
Runners-up: 2000, 2006

International

Runners-up: 1987–88, 2006–07

Regional

Winners (11): 1903–04, 1905–06, 1906–07, 1907–08, 1911–12, 1914–15, 1917–18, 1928–29, 1932–33, 1936–37, 1939–40
Winners: 2016[37]

Women's football

  • Primera División
Winners (1): 2005–06
Runners-up (3): 2006–07, 2009–10, 2010–11
Winners (6): 1996, 1997, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2012
Runners-up (4): 1990, 2002, 2007, 2011

Players

Current squad

As of 19 September 2022.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Spain ESP Joan García
2 DF Spain ESP Óscar Gil
3 DF Spain ESP Adrià Pedrosa
4 DF Uruguay URU Leandro Cabrera (captain)
5 DF Spain ESP Fernando Calero
6 MF Spain ESP Pol Lozano
7 FW Spain ESP Javi Puado
8 MF Albania ALB Keidi Bare
9 FW Spain ESP Joselu
10 MF Spain ESP Sergi Darder (vice-captain)
12 MF Brazil BRA Vinícius Souza (on loan from Lommel)
No. Pos. Nation Player
13 GK France FRA Benjamin Lecomte (on loan from Monaco)
14 DF Spain ESP Brian Oliván
16 MF Spain ESP José Carlos Lazo
17 FW Denmark DEN Martin Braithwaite
19 FW Spain ESP Dani Gómez (on loan from Levante)
20 MF Spain ESP Edu Expósito
21 MF Spain ESP Nico Melamed
22 DF Spain ESP Aleix Vidal
24 DF Spain ESP Sergi Gómez
25 GK Spain ESP Álvaro Fernández (on loan from Huesca)

Reserve team

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
26 DF Morocco MAR Omar El Hilali
27 DF Spain ESP Rubén Sánchez
28 DF Spain ESP Simo Keddari
30 FW Canada CAN Luca Koleosho
No. Pos. Nation Player
31 MF Spain ESP Dani Villahermosa
32 FW Morocco MAR Nabil Touaizi
33 FW Spain ESP Kenneth Soler
34 GK Spain ESP Ángel Fortuño

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
DF Spain ESP Álvaro García (at Ibiza until 30 June 2023)
DF Spain ESP Miguelón (at Oviedo until 30 June 2023)
DF Spain ESP Víctor Gómez (at Braga until 30 June 2023)
MF Netherlands NED Tonny Vilhena (at Salernitana until 30 June 2023)
No. Pos. Nation Player
FW Spain ESP Álvaro Vadillo (at Eibar until 30 June 2023)
FW Spain ESP Jofre Carreras (at Mirandés until 30 June 2023)
FW Belgium BEL Landry Dimata (at NEC Nijmegen until 30 June 2023)
FW Spain ESP Max Svensson (at Deportivo La Coruña until 30 June 2023)

Retired numbers

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
21 DF Spain ESP Daniel Jarque (2002–09) – posthumous honour)[a]
Notes
  1. ^ Starting from 2018–19 season, Marc Roca and Nico Melamed wore the number 21.[38][39]

Players with most appearances

As of 12 September 2020
Competitive, professional matches only.
# Name Years La Liga Segunda División Copa del Rey Copa de la Liga UEFA Cup Other Total
1 Spain Raúl Tamudo 1996–2010 340 26 14 9[a] 389
2 Spain Antonio Argilés 1950–1964 301 14[b] 38 4[c] 357
3 Spain José María 1965–1976 269 31 33 2 11[d] 346
4 Cameroon Thomas N'Kono 1982–1990 241 33[e] 30 19 10 333
5 Argentina Mauricio Pochettino 1994–2006 275 30 13 2[f] 320
6 Spain Fernando Molinos 1974–1984 264 43 6 6 319
7 Spain Manuel Zúñiga 1979–1988 259 29 18 9 315
8 Spain Marañón 1974–1983 261 43 4 6 314
9 Spain Arteaga 1993–2003 238 28 32 10 2[g] 310
10 Spain Diego Orejuela 1982–1991 216 33[h] 27 15 12 303

Notes

  1. ^ 6 appearances in UEFA Intertoto Cup and 3 appearances in Supercopa de España
  2. ^ All appearances in La Liga relegation play-offs
  3. ^ All appearances in Inter-Cities Fairs Cup
  4. ^ 8 appearances in Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and 3 appearances in Intertoto Cup
  5. ^ Including 2 appearances in La Liga relegation play-offs
  6. ^ All appearances in Supercopa de España
  7. ^ All appearances in Supercopa de España
  8. ^ Including 2 appearances in La Liga relegation play-offs and 1 appearance in La Liga promotion play-offs

Coaches

Club officials

Current technical staff

Role Name
Manager Spain Diego Martínez
Assistant managers Spain Raúl Espínola
Cameroon Thomas N'Kono
Spain Toni Borrell
Goalkeeping Coach Spain Jesús Salvador
Fitness Coach Spain Dani Parra
Spain Víctor M.Lafuente
Analyst Spain Ramón Alturo
Spain Álvaro J. García
Club Doctors Mexico Misael Rivas
Spain Narciso Amigó
Physiotherapists Spain Adrià García
Spain Noel Julián
Spain Albert Torner
Nutritionist Spain Robert Bausells
Kit man Spain Ángel Inac Martínez
Spain Víctor Ruiz
Delegate Spain Guillem Calzón

Board of directors

Role Name
Owner China Rastar Group
President China Chen Yansheng
Vice president China Wang Hongyuan
Board Secretary Spain Jorge Sarró Riu
Board Vice Secretary Spain Iñaki Frías Inchausti
Board of Directors China Liu Shenghua
China Mao Ye Wu
China Zheng Zefeng
China Lu Zuilan
Spain Rafael Marañón
Business and Coordination Director China Mao Yewu
Sport General Area Manager Spain Óscar Perarnau Figueras
CEO Spain José María Durán
Professional Football Director Spain Francisco Rufete
Professional Football Management Spain Raúl Tamudo
Academy Director Spain Luis Vicente Mateo
Femenino Football Director Spain Raquel Cabezón
Femenino Sporting Director Spain Francisca Camúñez Moreno
Head of Medical Services Spain Manolo González Postigo
Marketing and Commercial Director Spain Antoni Alegre Puzo
Financial Director Spain Joan Fitó Pardo
Chief Communications Officer Spain Agustín Rodríguez Mas
Social area Director Spain Alberto Ariza Navarro
Head of Ciutat Esportiva Dani Jarque's Schools
and Academies
Spain Eloy Pérez García
Stadium Director Spain Josep Toldrà Alegret
Office manager Spain Olga Moscatel Vivet
Administration and human resources manager Spain Laura Carranza
Security Director Spain Antoni Guerra Rojas
Telecommunications Director Spain Ángel Rojas Gómez
Business Coordination and Expansion in Asia China Senon Chen

Presidents

Dates Name
1900–02 Spain Àngel Rodríguez Ruiz
1902–06 Spain Josep María Miró Trepat
1906–09 no activities
1909 Spain Julià Clapera Roca
1909–10 Spain Àngel Rodríguez Ruiz
1910–11 Spain Evelio Doncos
1911–12 Puerto Rico José Gaspar Hardoy
1912–13 Spain Santiago de la Riva
1913–14 Spain Alfonso Ardura
1914–15 Puerto Rico José Gaspar Hardoy
Dates Name
1915–18 Spain José María Bernadas
1918–19 Uruguay Manuel Allende
1919–20 Spain Victorià de la Riva
1920–22 Spain Genaro de la Riva
1922–22 Spain Eusebio Fernández Muñiz
1922–24 Spain Victorià de la Riva
1924–25 Spain Santiago de la Riva
1925–30 Spain Genaro de la Riva
1930–31 Spain Santiago de la Riva
1931–33 Spain Javier de Salas
Dates Name
1933–42 Spain Genaro de la Riva
1942–47 Spain Francisco Román Cenarro
1947–48 Spain José Salas Painello
1948–58 Spain Francisco Javier Sáenz
1958–60 Spain Frederic Marimón Grifell
1960–62 Spain Victorià Oliveras de la Riva
1962–63 Spain Cesáreo Castilla Delgado
1963–67 Spain Josep Fusté Noguera
1967–69 Spain Juan Vilá
1969–70 Spain Josep Fusté Noguera
Dates Name
1970–82 Spain Manuel Meler
1982–89 Spain Antonio Baró
1989 Spain Ferran Martorell
1989–93 Spain Julio Pardo
1993–97 Spain Francisco Perelló
1997–11 Spain Daniel Sánchez Llibre
2011–12 Spain Ramon Condal
2012–16 Spain Juan Collet
2016– China Chen Yansheng

Historical departments of RCD Espanyol

Until the 1990s, Espanyol had several sporting sections. In March 2017, the Association of Supporters and Shareholders of RCD Espanyol boosted a project for recovering the sporting sections of the club, but this time without any economic link with the football team. The new multi-sports club was created with the name of Seccions Deportives Espanyol (Sporting sections Espanyol).[40]

Two months later, the association confirmed that Espanyol would start competing in the 2017–18 season, with a roller hockey team and women's volleyball teams.[41] In the next season, the basketball section was refounded and a new section of handball would be created.

Men's basketball

Winners (1): 1941
Winners (2): 1931, 1932
Runners-up (3): 1941, 1943, 1954

Women's basketball

Winners (1): 1943
Runners-up (1): 1944

Men's rink hockey

Winners (11): 1944, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1961, 1962
Runners-up (4): 1946, 1952, 1953, 1958

Women's volleyball

Winners (3): 1985, 1988, 1991
Winners (5): 1984, 1985, 1986, 1990, 1992

Men's baseball

Winners (2): 1946, 1953

See also

  • iconAssociation football portal
  • flagSpain portal

References

  1. ^ RCDE Stadium – RCD Espanyol Official Page
  2. ^ "History". RCD Espanyol. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Nou Velòdrom de Barcelona" [Clearing the equation: the role of Club X in the founding of RCD Espanyol de Barcelona (1902 – 1909)]. Chiefe. 16 September 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Spain - Cup 1915". RSSSF. 19 January 2000. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  5. ^ "El Espanyol tocó la gloria ante el Bayer Leverkusen" [Espanyol touched glory against Bayer Leverkusen]. Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 4 May 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Mor Juli Pardo, expresident de l'Espanyol" (in Catalan). Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals. 11 May 2018.
  7. ^ Segurola, Santiago (28 May 2000). "El Espanyol se corona en Mestalla" [Espanyol crowned in Mestalla]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  8. ^ "El Espanyol conquista su cuarta Copa del Rey" [Espanyol win their fourth Copa del Rey]. El Mundo (in Spanish). 12 April 2006. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Palop ensures cup joy for Sevilla". uefa.com. 17 May 2007.
  10. ^ "Pochettino replaces luckless Mané at Espanyol". UEFA. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  11. ^ Bate, Adam (1 October 2016). "How Mauricio Pochettino's Espanyol beat Pep Guardiola's Barcelona". Sky Sports. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  12. ^ Collins, Ben (2 August 2009). "Reds suffer pain in Spain". Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  13. ^ "Espanyol stunned by Jarque death". BBC. 8 August 2009.
  14. ^ "New Espanyol owner aiming for Champions League within three years". The Guardian. 22 January 2016.
  15. ^ Gillingham, Geoff (30 August 2019). "Friendly Europa League draw for Sevilla, Getafe and Espanyol". Marca. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  16. ^ a b Roche, Calum (9 July 2020). "Barcelona keep title race alive as they relegate rivals Espanyol". Diario AS.
  17. ^ a b Sid Lowe (9 July 2020). "Espanyol slip away to Barcelona's tune but the silence will sting too". The Guardian.
  18. ^ RCD Espanyol de Barcelona Comunicado Oficial, 3 August 2020
  19. ^ Missiroli, Antonio (March 2002). "European football cultures and their integration: the 'short' Twentieth Century". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  20. ^ Burns, Jimmy (November 6, 2017). "In troubled times, FC Barcelona defines modern Catalonia". POLITICO.
  21. ^ "FC Barcelona, more than a club". www.barcelona.de.
  22. ^ Temprano, Alejandra (2016-01-11). "El Barça cae en su trampa con el tuit de la vergüenza de Bartomeu". esdiario.es. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  23. ^ MARCA.com (2015-09-10). "Joan Collet: "Vamos a dar guerra al Madrid"". MARCA.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  24. ^ "El Espanyol "exige" la retirada de la campaña 'Si sientes el Barça, sientes Cataluña'". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  25. ^ BARCELONA, SERGI LÓPEZ-EGEA / (2016-03-03). "Ensenyament retira un texto ofensivo con el Espanyol". El Periódico (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  26. ^ "El Espanyol y el Joventut denuncian pensamiento único en Cataluña". Economiadigital (ed. general). Retrieved 2017-06-18.
  27. ^ "How Mauricio Pochettino's Espanyol beat Pep Guardiola's Barcelona". skysports.com. 1 October 2016.
  28. ^ Licia Granello (October 22, 1987). "Il Milan è già disperato". la Repubblica (in Italian). p. 25.
  29. ^ Licia Granello (November 5, 1987). "Un Milan senza attacco Una partita senza storia". la Repubblica (in Italian). p. 33.
  30. ^ Gianni Mura (November 26, 1987). "Ma l' Inter soffre ancora". la Repubblica (in Italian). p. 23.
  31. ^ Gianni Mura (December 10, 1987). "L' Inter perde l' ultima chance". la Repubblica (in Italian). p. 23.
  32. ^ "Finale UEFA Tre gol dell' Espanyol". la Repubblica (in Italian). May 5, 1988. p. 33.
  33. ^ "Coppa UEFA Il Bayer vince ai rigori". la Repubblica (in Italian). May 19, 1988. p. 23.
  34. ^ "Spain – List of Cup Finals". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Spain – List of Second Division Champions". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  36. ^ "Spain – List of Champions of Catalonia". RSSSF. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  37. ^ "El Espanyol gana la Supercopa" [Espanyol win the Supercup]. Mundo Deportivo. Roger Torelló. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  38. ^ "First Team RCD Espanyol Marc Roca Junqué #21". rcdespanyol.com. RCD Espanyol de Barcelona S.A.D. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  39. ^ "Nico Melamed, dorsal 21" [Nico Melamed, number 21 jersey] (in Spanish). RCD Espanyol. 31 August 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  40. ^ "Pericos sobre ruedas" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  41. ^ "Reneix el gegant adormit" (in Catalan). L'Esportiu de Catalunya. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.

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